May 14, 2012

Pyramids of Giza Facts Part 2

Africa and the Arabian peninsula are moving apart as if hinged near the north end of the Red Sea. This suggests a rotation of the pyramids in the wrong sense, but again of a magnitude far too small. Both these movements are shown in Fig. 8B.

Ancient Egyptian Pyramids
Earthquakes are a possible mechanism for a local reorientation. The Mediterranean and Red Sea areas are well known for earthquakes, but a single quake of unprecedented magnitude would be needed to move the pyramids by strain release. Expert geological opinion would be worthwhile on this point as the local fault system must be understood in detail, as also the effect of the quake thought to have occurred in 908 B.C.

An observation of the movement of the pole exists on a time scale which is rare to modem science. The continental drift theory is based on very recent measurements, and there is controversy over whether drift is continuous or jerky. In this debate the pyramid observation may make a contribution, as it should be explainable in geophysical terms.

Flinders Petrie (1) made the first (modem) detailed survey of the pyramids of Giza (2), but his observations seem to have been overlooked by scientists outside archeology. He concluded that the average of some six alignments from the pyramids of Cheops (Khufu) (see Fig. 8A) and Chephren (Khafra) was about 4' west of true north, with an error of V. This indicated to him that the earth’s pole had shifted by this amount.

Petrie argues that the east and west sides of each pyramid must have been set independently because the pyramids were built centered on a high point of bedrock. The entrance to Cheops’ pyramid is in the form of a shaft with two distinct elevations, each section requiring independent alignment. As these are made of well-dressed and well-preserved rocks the alignments are still highly accurate, differing by only Y. This is the origin of Petrie’s estimate of alignment error, and it is well within the limits placed by the acuity of the eye which must have been used unaided by the builders.

An independent assessment of the builders’ accuracy is afforded by the north and south sides of both pyramids. There is no direct astronomical method of east-west alignment, so that right angles must have been constructed. They were done with an accuracy of about 1.5'.

The northerly alignment must have been intended to be true north as there is no way of aligning to a point just off true north. A star so close to the pole would still describe a small circle in the sky, and this circle would alter considerably in its size in one generation owing to the precession of the equinoxes. Any thought of a magnetic alignment can be discarded because the magnetic variation over one generation would be enormous when the magnetic pole is near the true pole. In any case, the ancient Egyptians were not thought to have the lodestone, and this could never be used to achieve an accuracy of 1'. Petrie hints that astronomical parallax would have to be overcome by taking records 6 months apart, but it should be possible to get an alignment of the required accuracy in a single night.

There are no other remains in Egypt which can give corroborative results; the other pyramids are smaller and of less accuracy, and many other buildings have solar or stellar alignments. The two pyramids that give us this unique result were built at the zenith of pyramid construction, and it is not surprising that they alone yield such accuracy.

If we accept the evidence of the pyramids as valid we may well ask what other archeological remains can give further information. There are some extremely accurate yet unexplained plateau markings in Peru, made by the Nasca people, and these are in danger of destruction. The megalithic sites in Britain and Brittany are also candidates for study, but first we must be convinced of the arguments that these are solar and lunar observatories (5). The best of these may be accurate enough, although this is doubtful. The pyramids probably yield the most accurate record, and it would be a pity if this unique fact was lost in the rush of science.

When viewed from a distance the great pyramid gives the impression of being preserved substantially intact. However, when you get up close to it you see it has suffered greatly from the elements and by the hands of despoilers. A dozen or so courses and its capstone, which was possibly made of granite, have been removed from the apex. The entire facing of Tura limestone, with the exception of some pieces near the base, has been stripped from its triangular faces. The north face has a large opening cut into the core slightly below the original entrance. Moslem tradition relates that this aperture was made during the latter part of the ninth century in the mistaken belief that hidden treasures were contained within the pyramid. Subsequently, it became an abundant and convenient quarry for the provision stones required for bridges, walls, houses and other buildings in the neighborhood of Giza and Cairo.

Modern science has unearthed still another mystery about the Great Pyramid; archaeologists have been unable to arrive at the exact computation of the amount of hewn stone in it. It is estimated, however, that when completed, the core of local stone and the outer facing of Tura limestone were composed of 2,300,0 separate blocks, each averaging 2Vi tons and reaching a maximum of 15 tons in weight. Other estimations range from 2 to 70 tons apiece, with the maximum number of blocks required in the Pyramid’s construction reaching 2,500,000 pieces. It is thought that the center of its core consists of a nucleus of rocks whose size cannot be precisely determined. No structure in the world which has been measured and surveyed as often and with as great care as the Pyramid of Cheops has had such great discrepancies in the recording of its measurements. The only undisputed fact known about the pyramids is that the perfectly hewn granite and limestone blocks (to within 1/100 of an inch) were so accurately joined in the construction that the joints are never more than 1/50 of an inch wide.

Pyramids of Giza :
Pyramids of Giza Facts Part 1
Pyramids of Giza Facts Part 2
Pyramids of Giza Facts Part 3
Pyramids of Giza Facts Part 4

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