, pub-5063766797865882, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 January 2012 ~ Ancient Egypt Facts

January 31, 2012

How Khufu's Pyramid was Built ?

Notice : There is not evidence about Great Khufu's Pyramid was built but there is some theories and we will discuss the most famous and common one
How the Khufu Great Pyramid was Built ?

How Khufu's Pyramid was Built ?

What is the "common theory about how the pyramid was built ?
To begin with , we should mention that the common theory has no historical evidence to support it . Many Egyptologists claim that there are no ancient Egyptian records from any period , which describe how how the pyramids were built . their error is that they have predetermined the construction method and are only seeking the records to affirm their theory .

Their 'invited' theory is that :
1 - The pyramid's core was built mostly of quarried local limestone blocks which were cemented by a paper thin layer of mortar .

2 - The core masonry was originally faced with fine-grained limestone , which was quarried from Tura on the east bank of the Nile and ferried across the Nile to the Site .

Herodotus the Greek historian (c.500B.C.0 provided a historical account of how the pyramid was built .remember that the pyramids were at least 2,000 years old at that time and Herodotus was listening to an Egyptian priest , telling him about events which were , handed down by word of mouth , for sixty generations .

Herodotus neither mentioned the source of the core masonry as local limestone nor that the pyramid blocks were carved . he stated that stones ( not necessary quarried blocks , but possibly stone rubble ) were brought to the site from east side of the Nile .

Her are excerpts from Herodotus's' account : " The work went on in three-month shifts , a hundred thousands men to a shift . It took ten years of this oppressive slaves labor to build the track a long which the stone was hauled - a work in my opinion , of hardly less magnitude the pyramid itself : for it is five furlongs (330ft=5/8mile) in length , sixty feet wide , forty feet high at it highest point , and constructed of polished stone decorated with carving of animals . "To build the pyramid itself took twenty years "

"This pyramids was built thus ; in the from of steps which some call crosae , and others call bromides . After preparing the foundation , they raised stones by using machines made of short planks of wood , which raised the stones from the ground to the first range of steps . On this range there was another machine which received the stones from the ground to the fist range of steps . On this range there was another machine which received the stone upon arrival . Another machine advanced the stone on the second step . Either there were as many machines as steps , or there was really only one m and portable , to reach each range in , succession whenever they wished to raise the higher . I am telling both possibilities because both were mentioned . "

I am confused about Herodotus ' statement that " they raised stones by using machines made of short planks of wood "

The Greek word , mechane , used by Herodotus , is a non-specific term indicating a type of advice .

A machine made of short planks of wood , does not make too much sense .
Many people ridiculed Herodotus for this description . it was actually the poor translation that caused the confusion . The translators have distorted the meaning of the Greek word , when they gave it a specific modern-day meaning .

When the word , mechane , is translated to mean a device such as mold , the whole description makes sense . Let us review it in such a from :

"... They raised stones by using molds made of short planks of wood , which raised the stones from the ground to the fist range of steps . On this range there was another mold which received the stone (rubble ) upon arrival . Another mold advanced the stone on the second step . Either there were as many molds as steps , or there was really only one , and portable , to reach each range in succession whenever they wished to raise the stone higher .

I am telling both possibilities because both were mentioned "

A mold can be considered as an apparatus or advice . If Herodotus was not familiar with the term 'mold' , he therefore used the more general term , 'mechane ' .

It makes sense , but i am nit totally convinced . So , are you saying that the stones here are man-made just like the stones in all previous pyramids ?
Yes , as we discussed earlier , when we were as Saqqara , ancient Egyptians a had the know-how ti manufacture , hard stones . This was evident in the 40,000 items of stone artifacts which found underneath Zoser's Step Pyramid . manufacturing high quality limestone concrete blocks was another application of their highly advanced chemical and metallurgical knowledge .

To add to the evidence that the blocks were are not natural stone but are high quality limestone concrete (synthetic stone) which was cast directly in place , let s consider the following undisputed facts . (Similar facts to those mentioned here are also applicable to all masonry pyramids . )

How the Khufu Great Pyramid was built ?
1 - The Great Pyramid contains approximately 2.6 million building blocs , weighing from two to seventy tones apiece .

2 - Almost none of the pyramid blocks match the Giza Plateau chemically or mineralogically .

3 - The bedrock of the Giza Plateau is made of strata , while the pyramid blocks contain no strata .

4 - Geologists and geochemists cannot agree on the origin of the pyramid blocks . German geochemists' research showed that the properties if the pyramid blocks match those of at least twenty different quarries all over Egypt . Their finding shatter the common theory that the core masonry of the pyramid was quarried from local bedrock . On the other hand , it is preposterous to think that the blocks were hauled from sites hundreds of miles a way from the pyramid site . In other words , the quarried stone blocks theory contradicts the physical evidence .

5 - Natural stone consists of fossil shells which lie horizontally or flat in the bedrock , as result of forming sidemen tray layers of bedrock over millions years. The Blocks of the masonry pyramids of Egypt show jumbled shells which is indicative of man -made cast stone . in any concrete ,the aggregate are jumbled m and as result , cast concrete is devoid of sedimentary layers .

These pyramids consisted essentially of fossil shell limestone , a heterogeneous material very difficult to cut precisely .

6 - There are about ten standard block lengths throughout the pyramid .Similarly , limited numbers of standard sizes apply in other pyramids , as will carving such highly uniform dimensions is impossible . However having standardized concrete forming molds is a more logical conclusion .

7 - It was found that the longest blocks in the pyramids always have the same length . This is extremely strong evidence in favor of the use of cast stone .

8 - Strata and defects make it impossible to cut stone to perfectly uniform dimensions .

9 - Copper tools ( which are soft metal ) , used by Egyptians at that time , cannot cut large granite or millions of limestone blocs , in a span of twenty years .

10- Limestone frequently splits during cutting . Faults and strata in bedrock assure that for every blocks cut to standard, art least one will crack or ve improperly sizes during quarrying .

Given the many millions of blocks of all these pyramids , there should be millions of crack blocks lying nearby or somewhere in Egypt , bit they are nowhere to be found . In short , no rubbish id cracked blocks means no quarrying .

Ancient historians , who documented their visits to Egypt ,have no mentioned heaps of broken blocks .

11- The scientists found that the bulk density of he pyramid blocks is 20% lighter than the local bedrock limestone , Cast blocks are always 20-25% lighter than natural rock . because they are full of air bubbles .

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Who Built the Great Pyramid ?

Who built this Great Pyramid of Giza?
The building of the pyramid is attributed to king Khnum - Khufu and generally known as Khufu (Cheops in Greek) who reigned ancient Egypt from (2551 - 2528b.C.)

Khufu Statue
When you say "attributed " do you mean that we don't know for sure ?
Yes . There are no official inscriptions whatsoever on inside or outside of this pyramid .

It is only circumstantial deviance , The inscriptions in the mastabas surrounding the pyramid , make several references to the name of Khufu . None of these references , however , refer specifically to Khufu as the builder of the pyramid . The Greek historian . Herodotus , attributed this pyramid to Khufu , based on the information provided to him by his priest informant , who was conveying information at least 2,000 years after the pyramid was built .

The Fictional Slaves and
Fictional Slaves - ancient egypt
Who are the people who built the Khufu Pyramid ?
Almost Almost no historical information exists about the builders if the pyramids , The alleged "tyranny of Cheops (Khufu ) " cited by the Greek historian Herodotus ( C.500B.c.) , was generally accepted , and even elaborated upon , by non-factually writers .

Firstly , there is no evidence to suggest that people were compelled to work against their will . Indeed , if anything , the opposite more probable . Upon rational reflection , it is reasonable ti suppose that they labored willingly . This is not hard to comprehend once the notion of the pyramid being a tomb is dismissed .The sheer quality of craftsmanship in the construction the pyramids suggested a prides suggested a pride in the work .

Secondly , rational scholars challenged the notion of slave labor m since managing such huge numbers of disgruntled slaves , gathered in one small area , would have been a potentially explosive task .

Thirdly , Herodotus reported that his Egyptian guide told him that Khufu's predecessor , Snefru , was a good king . Yet the three mighty pyramids at Dahshur and Meidum , attributed so Snefru , required much more stones and labor than that required for the Great pyramid itself . This is a major contradiction in Herodotus' accountant of the "tyrant" sand "good " Kings .

At the finish how can i answer next questions about the evidences about  Khufu's Pyramid:

This is too much evidence .
You now know the hard facts , based on the elements of the "common theory " of stone cutting , hauling , and hoisting , how can we logically answer the following question :

1 - How did they manage to make the sloping sides of he pyramids absolutely flat ?
2 - How did they make the four sloping sides meet at a perfect point at the summit?
3 - How did they make the tiers so level ?
4 - How did they cut the stones , so that they fit together so precisely ?
5 - What tools did they use ?
6 - How could the required number of workers (estimated at 240-300,000 people) maneuver on the confined building site ?
7 - How did they cut the blocks so uniform ?
8 - How did they place some of the heaviest blocks in the pyramid , at such great heights ?
9 - How wee 115,000 casing blocks all made to fit to hair's breadth and closer ?
10 - How was all the work done in about 20 years ??

Important Links Related to Khufu Pharaoh | Khufu Pyramid Construction | Queen Hetepheres Tomb | Great Pyramid was built by RampsHow the great pyramid was built | Synthetic Blocks 

    Khufu Pyramid Construction

    Khufu Pyramid virtual tour - Khufu Pyramid Inside - Khufu Pyramid Height - Khufu Pyramid Construction

    Khufu's great Pyramid form The Exterior
    Khufu's Great Pyramid
    Its base area is approximately 13 acres ( 53,000 sq. meters ) , enough i hold the cathedrals of Florence Milan and St.Peters a, as well Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's .

    The sides if its vase are lined up almost exactly with the cardinal points of the compass , The average discrepancy of alignment is only .06% .

    The length of the sides of the base vary within 0.08% accuracy limit .

    The degrees of accuracy , in orientation towards the cardinal points , keeping the base square and the perfection of the four sloping sides , are incredible , considering the size of the structure.

    The angle of elevation of 51 ْ50'35 " , expresses the transcendental number Z with very considerable precision , This particular angle yields the unique geometrical property that the ratio of the pyramids perimeter to its height is equal to 2Z where Z is the transcendental number 3.141. Some people insisted that this geometrical relationship had to be accidental . They claim hat the builder of the pyramids laid out its dimensions by rolling a drum along the ground . There is no evidence whatever that the Egyptians ever measured anything by rolling by a drum . The Egyptians laid out their temples by a well-known and often depicted method called "stretching the cord " .

    Any logical person cannot expect that such an imaginary drum just happened to stop rolling at 377' (115m) , which is the center of the Great Pyramid . And nobody could except such a rolling drum to yield dimensions within a few millimeters of accuracy , 1/8 of one degree of the earth's latitude a at the equator .

    Studies have revealed a wealth of geometric , mathematical and proportional properties such as :

    Khufu's Great Pyramid
    1 - The Pyramid acts as an enormous sundial . Its Shadow to the north , and it's reflected sunlight to the south , annually marked solstices ( long est and shortest days in the year) , and equinoxes ( days of equal day / night ) very accurately .

    2 - Egyptians , since the very beginning of rerecorded history in ancient Egypt , knew dimensions of the earth . The Great Pyramid is , in some sense , a model of the earth . Contained within it are elements that relate to dimensions of the earth , Such as :

    a - It's apex represented the pole and the perimeter that the ratio of the perimeter to the height is equal to (2* Z) .

    b- The Great Pyramid represents the northern hemisphere , to a scale of 1:43,200 . This scale , for the northern hemisphere , represents in half of 86,400 . There are 86,400 seconds in 24 hours for both hemispheres .

    C - The very small discrepancies (of several inches over the 754-foot length (230m) of the base) ere deliberate . they were meant to incorporate into the Pyramid the "discrepancies" of the itself, which is the flatting of the earth's globe at the poles .

    The pyramid consists of 203 steps . The heights of the steps continually decrease from bottom to top .However , here hundreds of blocks weighting from fifteen (15) to thirty (30) tones situated near the "King's Chamber . Blocks of this size are so large that they occupy the space of two tiers

    The pyramids as surrounding by and built partly upon a pavement it platform of limestone blocks. portions of which can be seen at the northern and eastern sides .

    The pyramid symbolizes the creative principle of geometry , mathematics , astronomy , and astrology . the interior of the building may have served as a temple of initiation where men rose towards God and God descended towards man .

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    Queen Hetepheres Tomb Facts

     Tomb of Hetepheres - Queen Hetepheres Tomb - Hetepheres Tomb

    Queen Hetepheres Tomb - The Queen Khufu Mother's Tomb

    Hetepheres Tomb Plateau
    Khufu's father was Snefru and his mother was queen Hetepheres , whose tomb was found empty in 1925 , here in the Giza plateau , next to the great Pyramid .

    Another empty tomb ?
    Yes . They found the alabaster chest of his very important queen in an ordinary shaft . However, when it was opened, it was found empty. The canopic jars of the queen , containing her internal organs , were found next to the empty alabaster chest .

    Why did they leave an empty alabaster chest ?
    Nobody knows fir sure , but it may have something to do with the mysterious custom of what is referred to , for lack of a better them , as the " double burial " .

    Wait a minute . Are you saying the wife the greatest builder ,Snefru , and the mother of Khufu , had a simple shaft and nor a pyramid for a tomb ?
    If pyramids were tombs , this queen should have an elaborate pyramid , Since the Pyramids were not intended o be burial places m neither she nor her husband ( Snefru ) , nor son ( Khufu ) were ever buried in these enormous pyramids .

    Queen Hetepheres Tomb

    More recently Mark Lehner has suggested that the Hetepheres Tomb discovered by Reisner was Hetepheres' original tomb - her mummy was removed a later stage to a burial in a satellite pyramid (of Khufu's pyramid) where it was destroyed in antiquity:

    Tomb of Queen Hetepheres (picture from the tomb - museum of fine arts Boston, pictures of objects from the tomb - Cairo Museum).

    Important Links Related to Khufu Pharaoh | Khufu Pyramid Construction | Great Pyramid was built by Ramps | Builder of Great Pyramid | How the great pyramid was built | Synthetic Blocks 

    January 30, 2012

    Snefru's Red Pyramid

    Snefru's Red Pyramid
    We now proceed to another pyramid less than a mile of the Bent Pyramid , Which is called the Northern Pyramid of Dahshur . It is popularly known as the Red Pyramid because if the reddish or pinkish tint of the core stones.

    Snefru's Red Pyramid
    Ancient Egyptian Pyramid
    The Red Pyramid is in good condition .
    This is the earliest monument which is in complete pyramidical from . It looks good because i still retains large areas of its original casing stones .

    Who built the Red Pyramid ?
    Again , there are no inscriptions whatever inside or outside if this pyramid . It is believed that thus pyramid was built during the reign of king Snefru (2575 - 25551B.C).

    The blocks here are huge !
    yes . The height of blocks here vary from 1'-7" (.5m) to 4'-7" (1.4m).

    What is inside the Red Pyramid ?
    • The entrance passage is again the unique typical polar passage .it leads down a long , sloping corridor , to the bedrock , and is only 3'-11"(1.2m) high . Again , he passage is too small for a person to walk standing up straight .
    • The passage leads to two adjoining a third l identical rooms with corbelled roofs
    • A short passage leads upwards to a third large room, The corbelled roof of this third room rises to a height of 50'(15.2m) .
    Really unique arrangement ,
    It sure is . Also here ,for the first time , the rooms were incorporated into the pyramid itself ( traditionally they were underground )

    The rooms were empty again ?
    Yes. No trace of a stone chest or burial was found anywhere in the three rooms ,

    So Snefru built at least two and maybe tree large pyramids
    Yes, Snefru built two , and possibly three colossal pyramids m and erected stone monuments throughout Egypt , It is estimated that nine million tones of stone were used during the Pharaoh;s twenty -four years reign .

    So Snefru used more stone in building than his famous son Khufu ?
    Yes , Building with stone occurred on a mush larger scale prior to the building with stone occurred in a much larger scale prior to the building of Khufu's Great Pyramid at Giza .

    So Snefru was never buried in his pyramid ?
    there is no evidence of burial in any of the three pyramids . It should be clearer than ever that these Pyramids were not built to entomb anybody.

    Snefru's Meidum Pyramid

    Huni and / or Snefru's Meidum Pyramid

    As we get closer to Meidum , we see the outline of a strange structure .

    What is this structure ?
    This is the remains of Snefru's Pyramid .

    It does not like a pyramid at all .
    True . It looks more like kind of a high , stepped tower , rising out of a tremendous heap of rubble.

    Who built it ?
    There are no inscriptions indicating who built it . King Huni's name is nor mentioned anywhere in the area . Several graffiti on and around the ruins indicate that the Egyptians themselves ascribed it to king Snefru (2575-2551B.C)Despite this fact , some people guessed that the pyramid was built , or mostly built , by Huni (2599-2575 B.C.) , last of the Third Dynasty Kings .

    Snefru's Meidum Pyrami
    Was it both kings who built it then ?
    All circumstantial evidence indicates that Snefru alone built it . But the people who insist that the Pyramids were tombs and nothing else , could not deal with Snefru having tree pyramids which , in their minds , means three tombs . this is the reason , they came up with the unfounded story , that Huni built (* or mostly built ) this pyramid .

    How was this Pyramid built ?

    • The original plan of this structure was to build a step pyramid , and was later converted into a true pyramid with smooth sides .So , historically this is the first true pyramid .
    • It was built in three phases . Each phase was intended to be final because the exterior walls of each phase , consisted of fine limestone .
    • The first phase consisted of building a seven -tiered step pyramid , and it was finished by the customary casing of fine-grained limestone . it was 196'(60M) high.
    • The second phase consisted of adding an eighth step , which received another layer of casing stones . The height then became 262'(80m) .
    • the third phase transformed the eight-tiered step pyramid into true pyramid with smooth sides . Packing blocks were added and a final layer of casing stones was laid at a steep inward angle , to overcome the side pressure of successive courses of masonry .
    How did the pyramid end up to the was it is now ?
    After the pyramid was completed , a few of the casing blocks were squeezed out of place , a chain reaction followed ,and the entire outer casing gave way . Much of the core masonry was pulled with the loose casing stones . As a result of this avalanche , a huge rubble heap was formed around he Pyramid , Which left portions of the earlier step pyramid intact . This explains its towerlike appearance .

    How do you know that the collapse occurred after the pyramid was completed and not during the pyramid construction ?
    The presence of the mortuary temple next to the collapsed pyramid proves that the collapse occurred after the pyramid was completed . They would have not built the mortuary complex , next to the pyramid , if the pyramid actually collapsed during construction . To add a mortuary complex , Next to collapsed pyramid , is a moot and dangerous undertaking .

    The blocks of this pyramid are larger than the precious three pyramids .Right ?
    Yes . Some of its blocks weigh about 550 pounds (250kg) .
    There is no evidence of these stone blocks being quarried locally or otherwise . On the other had , records in the mines of Sinai indicate vigorous activities during Snefru;s reign .Again showing that arsenic0 minerals , need for the production of man-made limestone blocks , were extracted .

    How about the interior rooms ?
    there is only one small room , with no inscriptions , which has a fine core belled roof ( fashioned like steps in reverse ,) composed of seven steps .
    Access to the room can only be achieved from the corridor via a narrow vertical shaft . The interior . The interior room is set at the top of the shaft . This vertical shaft enters the floor of the rooms and is only 1.8'*2.8'(117*85c) wide .

    No sarcophagus or stone chest ?
    None , Totally empty . There was never a stone chest there m because it would have had to be placed in the room at the time when it was being built in ancient Egypt, and it could not have left the room b the narrow shaft , except if broken into pieces . No granite in the room itself or anywhere in the corridor.

    What is the significance of building a true m rather than a stepped pyramid ?
    By this true-shaped pyramid , Snefru ushered in the Pyramid Age . he started a master plan which began in the south and then was expanded northward by him his successors . The master plan introduced distinctive , and mostly mysterious features , such as :

    Snefru's Meidum Pyramid
    1 - All subsequent pyramids were true shaped
    2 - The bases of the Medium and all future stone pyramids are set along meridians . As such , each side of the square bases face one of the four cardinal points (north , south , wast and west).
    3 - From the Meidum Pyramid onward , the entrance to all masonry pyramid was will above ground . The interior rooms were mostly located at the base of the pyramid itself ..
    Bringing a heavy stone chest in and out of the above -ground entrance would have necessitated the is of a substantial ramp . However there is no evidence of the use of temporary of permanent ramps whatsoever .

    4 - This and all subsequent ,masonry pyramids share the same pattern of a noticeably low and narrow passages , which lack adequate space to move around , or stand up straight .

    5 - The narrow entrance passage is always directed like a telescope towards the celestial pole .

    6 - A small enclosure and a mortuary temple with a cause to the river , was repeated in all the subsequent pyramids .

    Bent Pyramid Facts

     Snefru Bent Pyramid

    Bent Pyramid facts - Bent Pyramid built - Bent Pyramid photo and images - Bent Pyramid

    Number 5 : Snefru's Bent Pyramid | All Ancient Egyptian Pyramids Information

    Snefru's Bent Pyramid
    Bent Pyramid of Snefru Size :
    Base : 602'(184m) square
    Height : 344'(105m)
    Mass : 3.6 million tones
    Inclination :5 3 ْ 27' base
    34 ْ 22' 44" top

    This Pyramid has a unique shape. Its lower half is built at a considerably steeper angle than the top .

    Who built this Pyramid ?
    As is the case in the prior three pyramids , this pyramid is again totally void of any markings. This pyramid was attributed to King Snefru (2575-2551B.C) , based on a reference to his name in the nearby temple .

    Why are there two angles of inclination for his pyramid ?
    Without and unsporting evidence m some think that the two angles were caused by chance in plan .

    What are the unique features about this Snefru's Bent Pyramid ?
    the evidence inside the Bent Pyramid leads us to conclude that its unique double angle was a deliberately planned design .

    The deliberate design us evident in the system of the internal rooms , The Bent pyramid alone has a double-angled profile and two totally separate sets of rooms m, one entrance on the customary north side , pointing to the polar stare , and a second entrance on the west side .
    The early stages of construction reflected hat these separate entrances , corridors , and underground rooms were part of the original plan.

    The emphasis upon a dual purpose or dual symbolism for this pyramid seems more reasonable than attempting to explain it as yet another change of plan .

    What is inside the pyramid ?
    The descending passage from the northern entrance is 3'-7" (1.1m) high . Again , like Meidum , the passage is too small for any person to walk up straight ,and it also point ti the polar star .

    The polar passageway leads to two internal rooms, which have corbel roofs , There is no trace of a stone chest or of a burial taking place in either room .

    A second passage connects the upper room with an opening high up in the western face of the pyramid, .This passageway is also 3'-7"(1.1m) high,which is too small for standing up .

    Bent Pyramid
    The blocks here vary in size , don't they ?
    Yes , the blocks range from small to huge . Such a variety in sizes provides for better interlocking , which ensures the stability of the structure .

    Related Web Search :
    • Bent Pyramid
    • Bent Pyramid Facts
    • Bent Pyramid at Dahshur

    Khaba Egyptian Pyramid | Facts and Secrets

    Khaba Pyramid One Of Ancient Egyptian Pyramids World
    We are now in front of the ruins of Khaba Pyramid . We see stone blocks spread over wide area.
    khaba pyramid Egypt
    Khaba Pyramid

    What happened here ?
    It appears that this pyramid was built during the reign of King Khaba (2603 - 2599B.C) . There are no inscriptions whatsoever , inside or outside the structure , which identify Khaba or anyone else as the builder . A reference to Khaba name is found in the nearby cemetery , which made him the most likely builder .

    He used small blocks just like Zoser and Sekhemket .
    Very much so , The blocks are just slightly larger here .

    Was the final structure intended to be a stepped pyramid ?
    Yes . it is actually known as the layer Pyramid . like the Sekhemket Pyramid , the structure here has no central mastaba -type tomb . the whole building was laid out , from the beginning , as a step pyramid .

    What us underneath this pyramid ? Anything exciting ? in Ancient Egypt
    There is only one empty underground room . The passage to the underground room , is located on the north face of the pyramid . The interior is inaccessible at this time .

    No sarcophagus or stone chest ?
    None whatsoever.

    Notice : Khaba Pyramid One Of Ancient Egyptian Pyramids World

    Related Web Search :

    Sekhemkhet Unfinished Pyramid Saqqara

    Sekhemkhet Pyramid - Sekhemkhet Pyramid Egypt - Sekhemkhet Pyramid Saqqara - Sekhemkhet Pyramid size - Sekhemkhet unfinished Pyramid

    Sekhemkhet's Pyramid

    Westward of the Unas Structure , we come to the Pyramid Complex of Sekhemkhet in ancient Egypt . In front of the ruins of this Pyramid Complex ( Sekhemkhet unfinished pyramid ), we see stone blocks spread over a wide area .
    Sekhemkhet Pyramid Saqqara - Egypt
    What happened here ?
    It appears that this pyramid was never finished .
    From the size of its foundation , it appears that the finished step pyramid was to seven steps , rising to a height of 230' (70m) .

    What is special about this "unfinished " Pyramid ?- Sekhemkhet pyramid
    There was no sign here of a central mastaba , as in the case of Zoser's Pyramid. The whole building was laid out , from the beginning , as a step pyramid .

    Who built the Sekhemkhet unfinished pyramid ?
    It seems that this pyramid was built during the reign of king Sekhemkhet (2611-2603B.C) . There is no direct evidence or any inscription or identification of Sekhemkhet or any body else , inside the Pyramid .
    Sekhemkhet Pharaoh
    No identification . This is strange .
    The mystery if the pyramids begins with Sekhemkhet because his and all subsequent masonry pyramids did not have any official inscriptions , whatever .

    Do you think these blocks were man-made also ?
    Yes . the stone blocks here are similar in size to Zoser's Pyramid , To confirm that the blocks were man-made , they found the pharaoh's name ( Sekhemkhet ) on monuments in Sinai , near the mine sites to the arsenic minerals which are need to make limestone blocks .

    Around the site you will notice a shallow mud ramp .

    What was that ramp for ?
    It was probably used as a constructor ramp . Since the blocks here small , ramps may have been used .

    So , what did they find underneath this Unfinished Pyramid ?
    • There was no vertical shaft ( like Zoser's ) but there is an underground room 98' (30m) deep , under the center of the pyramid .
    • The access to the underground room is a sloping tunnel . The entrance point is located on the north side of the pyramid .
    • In the lone underground room ,they found an unsubscribed stone chest , consisting of the single hollow black of alabaster , with has an opening at on e end , instead of a lid , The opening was closed with a sliding door , also of alabaster , and sealed with comment that raised and the stone chest turned out to be completely empty . In short , the stone chest was found sealed in an undisturbed statues, but empty.
    • There are no inscriptions whatsoever in the underground room or inn the stone chest.
    An empty , unfinished stone chest , What for ?
    This may have something to do with this ancient egyptian mysterious custom if what we refer to ,for a lack of a better term ,as "Double Burial "ancient Egypt .

    Did they find other things underneath this pyramid ?
    Actually , they did . They found a door framed by an arch .

    An arch ? So long ago ?
    Yes . its existence proves to the world that Ancient Egyptians invested and used the arches thousands of years before the Greeks and Romans did .

    The Discovery of the Unfinished Step Pyramid of Sekhemkhet in Saqqara

    Sekhemkhet King and his Pyramid :

    January 29, 2012

    Sources of Egyptian Pyramids Stones

    The Source of the Stones 

    Are you saying that the Ancient Egyptians manufactured hard stones from mineral ores ?
    Yes . Their Knowledge in manufacturing stones was also utilized in manufacture the stones for the sonry pyramids .
    Ancient Egyptian Pyramids
    What is your evidence to support the idea of man made stone blocks ?
    There are references to making stones on a stale , commonly know as the "Famine Stele" located on the island of Sahel , near Elephantine , south of Aswan . The Stele is dated to about 200 B.C. It is a copy of and old Kingdom text , which dates to the region of Zoser , 2500 years earlier , The three main characters on the stele , are Khnum (who represents the Divine Principle of Molding) ,King Zoser and Imhotep.

    This stele should have been named Khnum's Alchemical Stele , for it holds the Key the method of manufacturing man-mad stone .

    Approximately one-third of this stele's content pertains to rocks and mineral ore , and their processing Columns 18 and 19 of this Steele quote the Divine Molder , Khnum , speaking to king Zoser .
    I am Khnum , your creator , I give toy are ore after rare ore .... Never before has anyone processed the, (to make stone) in order to build the temples ...."
    Khnum - Ancient Egyptian God

    Very interesting. Tell me more.
    Lets up review how ancient Egypt and even some modern Egyptians make bricks , They push wet Nile mud m ,mixed with straw and sand , into a wooden moled . then the soft bricks are set out to dry in the hot sun .

    Imhotep used the same small . wooden molds to pour the more drubbed limestone concrete materials , rather than mud

    It must have been technological breakthrough.
    Not at all . They had the knowledge in Chemical and metallurgical sciences . they had been manufacturing stones for a long time as evidenced in all the tens of thousands of discovered artifacts .

    I never thought about it this way.
    they limited natural stones . Their skill in complicated processes enabled them to imitate the rich brilliancy of precious stones . some mock pearls have been so well counterfeited , that even now it is difficult to differentiate , that even pearls , even with a strong lens .

    Pliny the Elder (AD23 - 79) the Roman naturalist ,stated in The Encyclopedia of Natural History , Book 31 , that Egyptians made Real rocks from a multitude of minerals .He also stated that Egyptians made vases from their man-made stone .

    So , making stones to build the Pyramids should not have been a major achievement for them .
    Of course not . they had been manufacturing many many other stones for along time , So making stones for the Pyramids was just a new application of their knowledge at that time .

    But are you saying that these stones could Not have been quarried , as we were told?

    Let us review the common theory . The 'common' story is that the blocks , for the pyramids , were quarried from local sources , and that the casing blocks came from Tura , across the River Nile.The common story claims that the ancient Egyptians used the following to cut and shape the stone blocks :
    1 - copper chisels and possibly iron tools .
    2 - flint , quartz and diorite bounders .
    3 - large wooden crow bars .

    The common story also claims that to transports the stones blocks , they used wooden sledges and rollers .

    What is wrong with this theory ? 
    Firstly , Because the common theory only a guess and there is no historical evidence to support it . Secondly , stone and copper tools would not have been able to produce these huge numbers of blocks ,with such a Hugh quality , in the allocated tie period , here or in the other pyramids .

    Could it have been that they used a different method to quarry stones ?
    To quarry stones , some suggested that the Egyptians may have heated the surface of the stone to a very high temperature with fir , then sprayed on water to make it split . This suggestion is invalid , because :
    Ancient Egyptian Pyramids
    Firstly , this method results in providing irregular surfaces and not in making regular -shaped blocks .This method can only be used to reduce large pieces of sandstone ,granite , or basalt into small aggregates .

    Secondly , heating with fire transfers limestone into lime at 704 ْ(1,300 ْ) .As such , producing pyramid blocks by heating limestone is impossible .

    So how did they do it ?
    I believe that these blocks were high quality man-made limestone concrete and not quarried natural stone .It is a known fact that the ancient Egyptian silicosis-illuminate cement mortar is far superior to present day hydrated calcium sulfate mortar, By mixing the ancient high quality cement , with fossil-shell limestone concrete .

    The synthetic blocks consist basically of about 90-95% limestone rubble ,and 5-10% cement .

    All the required ingredient to make synthetic concrete stone , with no appreciable shrinkage , are plentiful in Egypt.

    1 - The alumina , used fir low temperature mineral synthesis , is contained in the mud from the Nile River .
    2 - Natron salt (sodium carbonate) is very plentiful in the Egyptian deserts and slat lakes .
    3 - Lime , which is the most basic ingredient for cement production , was easily obtained by calcining limestone in simple hearths .
    4 - The Sinai mines contained arsenic minerals , needed to produce rapid hydraulic setting , for large concert blocks .

    Natron (as type of flux) reacts with lime and water to produce caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) , which is the main ingredient for chemically making stone .

    Records of mining activities during Zoser's reign are indicated in a stele at the mines if Wadi Maghara in Sinai . Similar mining activities , during the subsequent pharaohs' regions of the Third and Forth Dynasties m are also records at Sinai .

    January 28, 2012

    Zoser Step Pyramid

    Ancient Egyptian Pyramids - Egyptian Pyramids - The Step Pyramids Of Zoser

    Egyptian Pyramids
     Now we will speak about more information and facts  about  ancient Egyptian Pyramids generally , Zoser step pyramids specially .

    Our articles consist of :
    • The Underground Chambers
    • The "Double burials"
    • The Chemical Knowledge
    The Underground Chambers
    The Underground Chambers (Egyptian Pyramids)
    What is underneath of the Zoser's pyramid ?
    At the bottom of the shaft , there are the burial chambers and networks of passages and small chambers , used for storing the funerary equipment and for the burials of Zoser and five members of his royal family .

    The burial chambers of the Step Pyramid are burial champers beyond any doubt . They contain inscriptions , offering rooms , and ,post of the other funerary features found in both earlier and later tombs .
    Some of these underground chambers are lined with beautiful blue faience tiles .

    Did they know about faience tiles that long ago ?
    Yes . however there are those who want to credit this invention to others in Europe . They claim , without any proof , that the walls were lined with these tiles much after than Zoser's time .

    What is wrong with their claim ?

    Firstly their claim is groundless . Secondly the so-called " southern Tomb " , Just 700 from the Step Pyramid , and which was built during Zoser's reign , is lined with the very same tiles . The " Southern Tomb " was intact until it was discovered by Lauer and Firth , in 1924-26 .

    The "Double Burials "
    "Southern Tomb " 
    Double Burials 
    "Southern Tomb "
    What is that ?
    At the southern of the Zoser's Complex is a great mastaba , beneath which is a set of chambers. They resemble the burial chambers beneath the step Pyramid . The walls of some of the rooms at the Southern Tomb are decorated with blue faience tiles . These unmolested empty rooms are too small to hold the bodies of any of Zoser's family .

    What are these empty rooms for ?
    Some have guessed that the may have been intended to hold Zoser's canopic jars.

    But the canopic jars are always left next to the sarcophagus.

    You are right . We are really dealing with and ancient Egyptian custom which was
    called , for lack of better term , "Double Burial "

    What is a "Double Burial " ?
    It appear that the early dynastic kings have had two "tombs " - one in the north at Saqqara , and another in the south at Abydos . What us even odder , is that in many of burial has been found in either one !

    Did Zoser have another tomb at Abydos ?
    Actually , he has another tomb (empty ) at Khallaf , south of Abydos .

    I don't understand the Logic !!
    Some scholars have explained this " Double burial " custom as a political move , designed to maintain unity between the north and south , by having the King buried in both . Other scholars , however, believe that the division into north and south was spiritually symbolic and not political . These separate 'tombs ' may have been intended to represent the solar principle in the north and the lunar principle in the south .

    The Chemical Knowledge
    The Chemical Knowledge ( Ancient Egypt )
    Did they find treasures underneath this Pyramid ?
    Yes , Some rooms underneath the Zoser Pyramid yielded about 40,000 items of stone jars and vessels of every imaginable size , shape and material , most of which were damage due to sitting of the earth . Many of these manufactured vessels were produces by earlier dynasties . The items are made of slate , metamorphic schist ( stone contain layers of flaky minerals ) diorite ,and basalt . The diorite used , a granite rock , is among the hardest knows . Modern sculptors don't attempt to crave these varieties of stone .

    Numerous hard stone vessels were found with long ,narrow necks , and wide rounded bellies . Their interiors and exteriors correspond perfectly , these smooth and glossy vessels show no traces of tool mark s .

    Howe were all these small and large items made from such hard stones ? And moreover , how could such hard stones be worked with no trace of tools marks ?
    maybe they didn't use tools at all . Their advanced knowledge in alchemy ( the word chemistry was derives from it only 250 years a go ) enables them to do wonders in chemical and metallurgical applications . Many of these items could have been manufactured from mineral ores and then molded , rather than sculpted or engraved .

    January 27, 2012

    Step Pyramid of Djoser facts at Saqqara Part 1

    The Pyramid complex of Djoser (Zoser)
      Djoser Step Pyramid

    The Step Pyramid of Djoser is located within the boundaries of the Pyramid Complex of Djoser. This Complex was built during the reign of King Djoser (Zoser) (2630B.C.-2611B.C.)

    Djoser (Zoser) Step Pyramid
    The  Djoser Step Pyramid contains at least one million tons of stones

    The Complex contains , in addition to the Step Pyramid , several building , colonnades and temples . The whole Djoser (Zoser) Complex is a masterpiece of harmony and order . The Complex is masterpiece the First Major Construction in Stone .

    Was this the first time Egyptians used stone in their building ?
    Prior to Djoser (Zoser), stone was quarried , transported and dressed . Egyptians may have used just a few tones of limestone during the First and Second Dynasties .The Step Pyramid Complex Djoser (Zoser) contains at least one million tons of stones . It is incredible that such a sudden increase in production could have been achieved , in just on generation .

    This Complex deserves as much attention as the Great pyramids of Giza . The amount of stone used in the Djoser Complex ( such as the enclosure wall ) indicates mastery of stone-making , before the time of Khufu ( Cheops in Greek ) .

    Tell me about enclosure wall :
    The enclosure wall is part of the Djoser Complex that King Djoser built . it surrounds an area more than a square mile . When complete , the enclosure wall was nearly 600 yards (549m) long , and 3000 yards (247m ) wide , and rode to a high of over 30' (9.1). It is built of limestone and faced with fine polished limestone in Ancient Egypt .

    The enclosure wall was a major project in itself .
    Yes . Its successive recesses and projections required more than triple the amount of both stone and labor of a similar simple wall .

    Where do we enter the Djoser (Zoser) Pyramid Complex ?
    The Enclosure Wall , which surrounds the Complex , has 14 bastion gates , but only one is real . the other 13 are simulated . The reason for such simulated gates remains a total mystery .

    Lets go through the only entrance .

    After going through the entrance , we walk through see beautiful colonnade . We then turn right and continue towards the Djoser (Zoser) Pyramid .

    On the right hand side one can notice Fluted columns .
    These columns are fluted , which looks the same as the ell -Known Doric columns of Greece .

    Are these columns older than the Greek Columns ?
    These Egyptian columns are at least two thousands years older than the Greek columns .

    So , Why are they called Greek Doric columns , when they are actually of Egyptian design ?
    it is a historical deception .

    Step Pyramid :

    Ancient Egyptian Pyramids Facts for kids

    The Genuine Masonry Pyramids

    Ancient Egyptian Pyramids - Egyptian Pyramids - Pyramids of Egypt

    Egyptian Pyramids
    There are only 10 Pyramids in Egypt   and you will say :

    You mentioned ten Pyramids and I thought that there were many more .
    There are numerous structure which have / had the shape pyramids . The genuine pyramids , however , are those which consist of solid core masonry .

    So , tell me about there genuine masonry pyramids .
    These ten pyramids are located within 50 miles (80KM) of each other . They were all built during the third and Fourth dynasty . In a little more than a century . twenty-five million tones was used to build these pyramids , Later , ungenuine pyramids were built during the Fifth and later Dynasties.

    OK , What are these ungenuine pyramids made of ?
    They were built of loose stone rubble and sand , sandwiched between stone walls. most are now little more than heaps of rubble , because this type of construction rapidly deteriorates , once the casing is badly damaged or removed .

    So , the core material of the pyramid determines whether it is genuine or ungenuine ?
    Exactly .

    Ok , so what are the ten masonry pyramids ?
    They are in order that they were built :

    1 - Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara and Part 2
    2 - Sekhmet's Unfinished Pyramid at Saqqara
    3 - Khaba's Layer Pyramid at Zawyet El Aryan
    4 - Huni and /Or Snefru Medium Pyramid at Medium
    5 - Snefru Bent Pyramid at Dahshur
    6 - Snefru Red Pyramid at Dahshur
    7 - Khufu's Great Pyramid at Giza
    8 - Djedefre's Pyramid at Abu -Rawash
    9 - Khafre's Pyramid at Giza and Journey Inside Khafre Pyramid
    10 - Menkaure's Pyramid at Giza .

    These pyramids and their surrounding temples and building were glorious monuments . Because of time , but mostly because of human barbarism , many of these monuments are now nothing but stone , debris and occasional walls .

    We shall search for the truth among of ruins .

    Can you tell me a brief chronology of the pharaohs responsible for ten Pyramids ?
    The Pyramid Age started with the Pharaoh Zoser who left his identification in the underground chambers . and later built the Step Pyramid on top . However , the other nine pyramids are totally void of ANY Official inscription. They have been attributed to specific pharaohs' based only on some nearby buildings and tombs , which indirectly refer to these pharaohs' names but not as the builders of these pyramids . There is no direct evidence linking these pharaohs to the pyramids themselves .

    The common story continuous to be thought in schools stating that how pyramids are about 5,000 years old . There are some scholars tho challenge this , and place the building of he pyramids at around 10,0000 B.C. These views should not be dismissed , because the common view itself is not well supported .

    So , why did they build these pyramids without leaving their inscriptions ?
    We don't know for sure . but one should conclude that they were unselfish Kings , and they probably built them for a higher and more noble cause , unknown to us .

    Yes , yo would think that they would take credit fir their achievements , by leaving their names on them .
    They must have been humble rulers and not tyrants , as Hollywood and TV choose to portray them .

    Egyptian Pyramids
    So , who are these e pyramids ' pharaohs ?

    Third Dynasty :
    • Zoser : 2630 - 2611BC.
    • Sekhemkhet : 2611-26031BC.
    • Khaba : 2603 - 2599 1BC.
    • Huni 2599 2575 1BC.

    Fourth Dynasty :
    • Snefru : 2575 - 2551 1BC.
    • Khufu ( Cheops ) 2551 - 2528 1BC.
    • Djedefre : 2528 - 2520 1BC.
    • Khafre (Chephren) 2520 - 2494 1BC.
    • Menkaure (Mycerinus) 2494 - 2472 1BC.

    The capital city of Egypt ( from 3150 B.C. to 1783 B.C.) was Memphis , a few mils east of Saqqara .

    I always wanted ti ask about all these dynasties . how and why did one end and another begin ?
    In Ancient Egypt , the eldest daughter inherited the throne . If she married , her husband became the pharaoh . So, if a pharaoh didn't have any daughters a new dynasty started .

    Related Web Search :
    • Egyptian Pyramids
    • Ancient Egyptian Pyramids
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    • Ancient Egyptian Pyramids Facts for Kids
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    Ancient Egypt and Practise of Medicine

    Ancient Egypt search : ancient Egyptian medication , ancient Egyptian medicine timeline , ancient Egyptian medicine facts , ancient Egyptian drugs , ancient Egyptian surgery , ancient Egyptian medicine for kids, ancient Egyptian medicine pictures , ancient Egyptian medicine recipes

    ancient Egyptian medicine
    Ancient Egyptian medicine in Ancient Egypt

    Medicine from the ancient Egyptians, some of the oldest documented. From the beginnings of civilization in the century, 33 before the birth (c) even went the Persian invasion of 525 BC, the Egyptian medical practice without a change to a large extent and was very advanced for its time, including the operation simple non-invasive, and the development of bone and a wide range of drugs. Egyptian thought later in the affected medical traditions, including the Greeks.

    Nutrition in Ancient Egypt

    Basically do not need when considering the validity of any nutrition education will be discussed. The ancient Egyptians aware of the importance of diet. This was the reason for the suspension of Egypt's great fertile land for food production never a major issue although of course it does not matter how a multitude of landless and land poor, famine still exists. The major crops for most of the history of the ancient Egyptian emmer wheat and barley. Consumed in the form of loaves produced in a variety of types of bread and fermentation through, with a lot of yeast to enrich the nutritional value of the product, can be a crop farmers in support of an estimated twenty adults. Barley was also used in beer. Was grown on a large scale vegetables and fruits of many kinds. The production of oil from the flax plant and there was a limited selection of spices and herbs. And meat (sheep, goats, pigs and wild animals) regularly available at least consumption of the upper layers and fish on a large scale and in spite of evidence of the ban during certain periods against certain types of animal products; Herodotus wrote of the pig as' unclean. "And recorded presentations to the King Unas (c. 2494-2345 BC), as

    "... The milk, and three kinds of beer, and five types of wine, and ten loaves, and four of the bread and cakes four years of meat, cuts of different joints, barbecue, spleen, and limbs, and breast cancer, quail, geese, pigeons, figs, ten other fruits, and three types of corn, barley, written, and five types of oil, and fresh plants ... "

    It is clear that the Egyptian diet was not required for the upper classes, and that even in the lower classes may have been some selection (Nunn, 2002).

    Practices Medicine in Ancient Egypt

    In addition, medical knowledge in ancient Egypt an excellent reputation, and the rulers of other empires would ask the Egyptian Pharaoh to send them their best doctor to treat their loved ones. The Egyptians had some knowledge of human anatomy. For example, in the process of mummification, classic, and I knew how to mummifiers the introduction and implementation of long-hooked through the nose, breaking the thin bone of the brain case and the removal of the brain. They must also have had a general idea of the site in the body cavity of the internal organs, which removed through a small incision in the left thigh. However, what if you pass this knowledge to the practitioners of medicine is not known and seems to have any impact on the medical theories.

    Egyptian doctors were aware of the presence of pulse and a link between pulse and heart. Author of the Smith Papyrus, even if a vague idea of the system of the heart, although not from the circulation, and was unable, or believes that is important to distinguish between blood vessels, tendons and nerves. They developed their theory of "channels" that carry air, water and blood to the body through the measurement on the River Nile, and if it becomes blocked, and became the crops healthy and it applies this principle to the body: if the person was fine, they use laxatives to release " channels ".

    Too few effective medical practices, such as many surgical procedures contained in the Edwin Smith papyrus. Often, the advice of doctors to stay healthy for washing and shaving the body, including in the context of weapons, and this may lead to the prevention of infection. They also advised patients to take care of their diet, avoid foods such as raw fish or other animals that are unclean.

    The many practices are ineffective or harmful. Michael D. Parkins says that 72% of 260 prescriptions in Papyrus Hearst has no elements of treatment are known, and many of the dung animal that contains products from fermentation and rot, and some even have healing properties, but also bacteria pose a serious threat of infection.

    Healers and doctors in Ancient Egypt

    The ancient Egyptian word for doctor is "wabau". This title has a long history. The earliest recorded physician in the world, Hesy-Ra, practiced in ancient Egypt. He was “Chief of Dentists and Physicians” to King Djoser, who ruled in the 27th century BC. The lady Peseshet (2400 BC) may be the first recorded female doctor: she was possibly the mother of Akhethotep, and on a stela dedicated to her in his tomb she is referred to as imy-r swnwt, which has been translated as “Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians” (swnwt is the feminine of swnw).

    There were many ranks and specializations in the field of medicine. Royalty employed their own swnw, even their own specialists. There were inspectors of doctors, overseers and chief doctors. Known ancient Egyptian specialists are ophthalmologist, gastroenterologist, proctologist, dentist, "doctor who supervises butchers" and an unspecified "inspector of liquids". The ancient Egyptian term for proctologist, neru phuyt, literally translates as "shepherd of the anus".

    Institutions, so called Houses of Life, are known to have been established in ancient Egypt since the 1st Dynasty and may have had medical functions, being at times associated in inscriptions with physicians, such as Peftauawyneit and Wedjahorresnet living in the middle of the first millennium BC. By the time of the 19th Dynasty their employees enjoyed such benefits as medical insurance, pensions and sick leave.

    Dentistry in Ancient Egypt

    The dental field is important, as it is independent of the profession of the third millennium BC in the early, although it may not be never prominent. The diet of the Egyptian abrasion is high (such as sand left over from grinding grain) and the condition of their teeth were very poor, despite the fact that archaeologists have noted a steady decline in the severity of the occurrence of teeth worn throughout the 4000 BC to 1000 AD, probably because of improved techniques grain grinding. Egyptians still not all groups of teeth in very poor countries. Dental disease can even be fatal, such as Djedmaatesankh, a musician of Thebes, who died at the age of thirty-wide dental disease and infected a large bag. The dental infection and the best hope for people can be the rapid loss of teeth affected. On instructions from Ankhsheshonq contains the statement "there is still no teeth rotting remains in place." The lack of records and document speed up this process has not been found on the appropriate tools to extract the tooth, and although some of the remains show a sign of forced removal of teeth. Found on the teeth of an alternative, although it is not clear whether it is; only a post-mortem may be cosmetic. In the treatment of severe pain by opium.

    Magic and religion in Ancient Egypt

    In addition, magic and religion is an integral part of everyday life in ancient Egypt. It is believed that the evil gods and demons to be responsible for many diseases, and often involve an element of the supernatural treatments, such as the start of treatment with an appeal to the deity. There does not seem that a clear distinction between what is at present to be seen in a very distinct callings of priest and doctor. Healers and many of them priests of Sekhmet often used incantations and magic as part of treatment.

    May have resulted from a widespread belief in magic and religion in the placebo effect is strong, that is, have contributed to the health of the perceived effectiveness of treatment. The effect of magic to focus on the choice of treatments or components for them. Has been selected components that appear in some cases because they were derived from plant, animal or substance that the properties that match in some way to the symptoms of the patient. This is known as the principle of similibus simila ("similar with similar") found throughout the history of medicine to the modern practice of homeopathy. Thus, ostrich eggs are included in the treatment of fracture of the skull, and can be used as an amulet depicts the hedgehog against baldness.

    The amulets are generally very popular, being worn for many magical purposes. Classified as amulets and health-related homeopoetic, phylactic and theophoric. Homeopoetic amulets portray an animal or part of the animal, and worn by hopes for positive attributes such as strength or speed. Phylactic amulets protected against the harmful gods and demons. And is often used on the famous Eye of Horus amulet phylactic. Represent amulets Theophoric Egyptian gods, one of Isis and a belt was intended to stem the flow of blood in abortion. In addition, often made of bone, and hanging from a leather belt.

    Surgery in Ancient Egypt

    The surgery is a common practice among doctors for the treatment of physical injuries. Egyptian doctors admitted that three categories of injuries; diseases can be treated, stabbing, and non-treatment. Disease can be treated quickly, the surgeons to the right. These diseases were stabbed the victim can survive without treatment and may, therefore, assumed to be patients in this category was observed Oama they are alive and can be attempts to reform the surgery. Have included surgical instruments and detection of archaeological sites in knives, hooks, and exercises, and the tongs, pliers, and standards, and spoons, saws and vase with burning incense.

    And male circumcision was the rule, as mentioned Herodotus in his history. Though rarely mentioned as a performance of procedure, has been observed in many cases, nature is circumcised from other cultures, and was noted in many instances are not circumcised nature of the Liberian military campaigns and the uncircumcised penis brought back as trophies, which suggests the grandmother. Although other records describing the start of the religious orders they involve the circumcision, which means that this practice is private and not on a large scale. Imaging only known from this action, in a tomb of a physician, and the burial place of Tutankhamun - Mahor in Saqquarra, shows adolescents or adults, not children. Has practiced female genital mutilation, although one reference to it in ancient texts may be a misunderstanding.

    Also used artificial limbs, such as artificial fingers and eyeballs,; usually, they served a little more than decorative purposes. In preparation for burial, will be replaced with body parts missing (but this does not appear as if they were useful, or even affixed) before his death.

    Given the widespread use of embalming practices of surgery, and autopsy of Egyptian religious practice extensive knowledge of the shape of the body, and even great understanding of the functions of the device. (University of Minnesota). The function of most major organs correctly, it is assumed, for example, was thinking correctly in the blood to be a vital means of transpiration and waste, not far from their actual roles in carrying oxygen and remove carbon dioxide with the exception of the heart and was transferred the functions of the brain.

    Sources of information

    Until the 19th century, the primary sources of information on ancient Egyptian medicine in the later literature in antiquity. Homer (c) 800 BC observed in the Odyssey: "In Egypt, men are more skilled in medicine than any kind of rights" and "Egyptians were skilled in medicine more than any other art," the Greek Herodotus visited Egypt about 440 historian, wrote BC , and a wide range of medical practices of his remarks. Pliny the Elder also wrote favorably of them in a historical review. Studied Hippocrates ("father of medicine"), Herophilos, Erasistratus and Galen later in the temple of Amenhotep, and acknowledged the contribution of medicine of the ancient Egyptian and Greek medicine.

    In 1822, and the translation of the Rosetta Stone finally allowed translation of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions and papyri, including many of the issues relevant medical (Egyptian medical papyri). Led the interest rate resulting in Egyptology in the 19th century to the discovery of several extensive collections of ancient documents, including the Papyrus Ebers, the Papyrus Edwin Smith and Papyrus Hearst, and Papyrus medical in London and others dating back as far as 3000 BC. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is a book about the details of the surgery and anatomical observations and "screening, diagnosis, treatment and diagnosis" of many diseases. [2] was probably written around 1,600 BC, but is a copy of the texts in the earlier kit. Medical information at the early dates from 3000 BC. [3] Imhotep 3 strain in the credit as a writer of the original papyrus, and the founder of ancient Egyptian medicine. The surgery as soon as known in Egypt, 2,750 BC.

    (C) The Ebers Papyrus 1550 BC is full of incantations and foul applications meant to stay away disease-causing demons, and also includes 877 medical prescriptions. [4] may also contain the earliest documented awareness of the tumors, and if it is not understood by the ancient medical terminology has been interpreted correctly. Other information comes from the images that often adorn the walls of Egyptian tombs and the translation of the accompanying literature. Progress in modern medical technology also contributed to the understanding of ancient Egyptian medicine. The Paleopathologists able to use X-rays and CT scans at a later time to view the bones and organs of mummies. Allows electron microscopes, mass spectrometry techniques and forensic scientists of various profiles of the unique health situation in Egypt since 4000 years.

    Other documents such as the Edwin Smith Papyrus (1550 BC), the Hearst Papyrus (1450 BC), and Berlin Papyrus (1200 BC) also provides valuable information on ancient Egyptian medicine. Said Edwin Smith papyrus, for example, research methods, and to make the diagnosis of the patient and determine treatment. It is therefore serve as a guide learning. Treatment consists of diseases are made of materials of animal and vegetable or fruit or any other metal.

    ancient Egyptian medicine papyrus

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