January 31, 2012

How Khufu's Pyramid was Built ?

Notice : There is not evidence about Great Khufu's Pyramid was built but there is some theories and we will discuss the most famous and common one
How the Khufu Great Pyramid was Built ?

How Khufu's Pyramid was Built ?

What is the "common theory about how the pyramid was built ?
To begin with , we should mention that the common theory has no historical evidence to support it . Many Egyptologists claim that there are no ancient Egyptian records from any period , which describe how how the pyramids were built . their error is that they have predetermined the construction method and are only seeking the records to affirm their theory .

Their 'invited' theory is that :
1 - The pyramid's core was built mostly of quarried local limestone blocks which were cemented by a paper thin layer of mortar .

2 - The core masonry was originally faced with fine-grained limestone , which was quarried from Tura on the east bank of the Nile and ferried across the Nile to the Site .

Herodotus the Greek historian (c.500B.C.0 provided a historical account of how the pyramid was built .remember that the pyramids were at least 2,000 years old at that time and Herodotus was listening to an Egyptian priest , telling him about events which were , handed down by word of mouth , for sixty generations .

Herodotus neither mentioned the source of the core masonry as local limestone nor that the pyramid blocks were carved . he stated that stones ( not necessary quarried blocks , but possibly stone rubble ) were brought to the site from east side of the Nile .

Her are excerpts from Herodotus's' account : " The work went on in three-month shifts , a hundred thousands men to a shift . It took ten years of this oppressive slaves labor to build the track a long which the stone was hauled - a work in my opinion , of hardly less magnitude the pyramid itself : for it is five furlongs (330ft=5/8mile) in length , sixty feet wide , forty feet high at it highest point , and constructed of polished stone decorated with carving of animals . "To build the pyramid itself took twenty years "

"This pyramids was built thus ; in the from of steps which some call crosae , and others call bromides . After preparing the foundation , they raised stones by using machines made of short planks of wood , which raised the stones from the ground to the first range of steps . On this range there was another machine which received the stones from the ground to the fist range of steps . On this range there was another machine which received the stone upon arrival . Another machine advanced the stone on the second step . Either there were as many machines as steps , or there was really only one m and portable , to reach each range in , succession whenever they wished to raise the higher . I am telling both possibilities because both were mentioned . "

I am confused about Herodotus ' statement that " they raised stones by using machines made of short planks of wood "

The Greek word , mechane , used by Herodotus , is a non-specific term indicating a type of advice .

A machine made of short planks of wood , does not make too much sense .
Many people ridiculed Herodotus for this description . it was actually the poor translation that caused the confusion . The translators have distorted the meaning of the Greek word , when they gave it a specific modern-day meaning .

When the word , mechane , is translated to mean a device such as mold , the whole description makes sense . Let us review it in such a from :

"... They raised stones by using molds made of short planks of wood , which raised the stones from the ground to the fist range of steps . On this range there was another mold which received the stone (rubble ) upon arrival . Another mold advanced the stone on the second step . Either there were as many molds as steps , or there was really only one , and portable , to reach each range in succession whenever they wished to raise the stone higher .

I am telling both possibilities because both were mentioned "

A mold can be considered as an apparatus or advice . If Herodotus was not familiar with the term 'mold' , he therefore used the more general term , 'mechane ' .

It makes sense , but i am nit totally convinced . So , are you saying that the stones here are man-made just like the stones in all previous pyramids ?
Yes , as we discussed earlier , when we were as Saqqara , ancient Egyptians a had the know-how ti manufacture , hard stones . This was evident in the 40,000 items of stone artifacts which found underneath Zoser's Step Pyramid . manufacturing high quality limestone concrete blocks was another application of their highly advanced chemical and metallurgical knowledge .

To add to the evidence that the blocks were are not natural stone but are high quality limestone concrete (synthetic stone) which was cast directly in place , let s consider the following undisputed facts . (Similar facts to those mentioned here are also applicable to all masonry pyramids . )

How the Khufu Great Pyramid was built ?
1 - The Great Pyramid contains approximately 2.6 million building blocs , weighing from two to seventy tones apiece .

2 - Almost none of the pyramid blocks match the Giza Plateau chemically or mineralogically .

3 - The bedrock of the Giza Plateau is made of strata , while the pyramid blocks contain no strata .

4 - Geologists and geochemists cannot agree on the origin of the pyramid blocks . German geochemists' research showed that the properties if the pyramid blocks match those of at least twenty different quarries all over Egypt . Their finding shatter the common theory that the core masonry of the pyramid was quarried from local bedrock . On the other hand , it is preposterous to think that the blocks were hauled from sites hundreds of miles a way from the pyramid site . In other words , the quarried stone blocks theory contradicts the physical evidence .

5 - Natural stone consists of fossil shells which lie horizontally or flat in the bedrock , as result of forming sidemen tray layers of bedrock over millions years. The Blocks of the masonry pyramids of Egypt show jumbled shells which is indicative of man -made cast stone . in any concrete ,the aggregate are jumbled m and as result , cast concrete is devoid of sedimentary layers .

These pyramids consisted essentially of fossil shell limestone , a heterogeneous material very difficult to cut precisely .

6 - There are about ten standard block lengths throughout the pyramid .Similarly , limited numbers of standard sizes apply in other pyramids , as will carving such highly uniform dimensions is impossible . However having standardized concrete forming molds is a more logical conclusion .

7 - It was found that the longest blocks in the pyramids always have the same length . This is extremely strong evidence in favor of the use of cast stone .

8 - Strata and defects make it impossible to cut stone to perfectly uniform dimensions .

9 - Copper tools ( which are soft metal ) , used by Egyptians at that time , cannot cut large granite or millions of limestone blocs , in a span of twenty years .

10- Limestone frequently splits during cutting . Faults and strata in bedrock assure that for every blocks cut to standard, art least one will crack or ve improperly sizes during quarrying .

Given the many millions of blocks of all these pyramids , there should be millions of crack blocks lying nearby or somewhere in Egypt , bit they are nowhere to be found . In short , no rubbish id cracked blocks means no quarrying .

Ancient historians , who documented their visits to Egypt ,have no mentioned heaps of broken blocks .

11- The scientists found that the bulk density of he pyramid blocks is 20% lighter than the local bedrock limestone , Cast blocks are always 20-25% lighter than natural rock . because they are full of air bubbles .

Important Links Related to Khufu Pharaoh | Khufu Pyramid Construction | Queen Hetepheres Tomb | Great Pyramid was built by Ramps | Builder of Great Pyramid | Synthetic Blocks 

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

very good u web

Ancient Egypt said...

Thanks ,,,

مصطفى بدر said...

سر الاهرمات هو سر الانسان المصرى

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